Grammar » 27 » The Affix -sima-

-sima- is a very common affix in Inuktut. It is added to verb roots to indicate the state that one is in as a result of the action described by the root.  Compare the following examples :

nigisimaven? Have you eaten?
â nigisimavunga. Yes, I have eaten.

We see in this lesson that -sima- can be used when one is out hunting:

tuttusiugiajuk He/she is going caribou hunting.
ttuttusiugiasimajuk He/she is out caribou hunting.
puijisiugiattuk He/she is going seal hunting.
puijisiugiasimajuk He/sheis out seal hunting.

...or it can be used when one has caught something

Kilalugak beluga
Kilalugasimajut They caught a beluga.
utjuk bearded seal
utjusimajuk He/she caught a bearded seal.
ukalik hare
ukalisimajuk He/she caught a hare.

Here are some other examples of how this versatile affix can be used:

aullajuk He/she departs.
aullasimajuk He/she is out of town.
tikijut They arrive.
tikisimajut They have arrived.
tupik tent
tuppisimajuk He/she is camping.
matutsijuk He/she closes something.
matusimajuk It is closed.
iga cooking fire; stove
igasimajuk It is cooked.



When -laut- is added before -sima- it gives the meaning of "ever" :

Kilalugammik takulautsimaven?
Have you ever seen a beluga?
Have you ever eaten polar bear meat?

...and if we put together -lauk- + -sima- + -ngit-, we can express the idea of "never" :

Kilalugammik takulautsimangilanga.
I have never seen a beluga.
I have never eaten polar bear meat.