Grammar » 26 » Overview of Affixes Used for Tenses

As a review, here is a summary of the most common affixes used to mark events that are happening in the past, present and future:

past: yesterday +  
-lauk- / -laut-  
tikilauttuk He/she arrived.
past: earlier today  
tikikKaujuk He/she arrived earlier.
past: immediate  
tikitainnatuk He/she just arrived
-lik- / -lit-  
tikiliqtuk He/she is arriving right now.
future: later today  
-niak- / -niat-  
tikiniattuk He/she will arrive later today.
tikilangajuk He/she will arrive later today.
future: tomorrow +  
-lâk- / -lât-  
tikilâttuk He/she will arrive (tomorow / in the future).



If we want to to talk about an action that has just happened in the recent past, we can use the affix -tainnak-:

itik + tainnak + tuk =  
ititainnatuk He/she just came in.
tiki + tainnak + Kugut=  
tikitainnaKugut We just arrived.



The affix -lik- is added to verbs to emphasize that an action is happening right now. It is especially common with verbs involving motion or emotions to describe how one is feeling at that moment.

anivunga I am going out.
anilikKunga I am going out right now.

The final -k in -lik- changes to -t when it is followed by a verb ending that start with t-.

angiggajuk He/she is going/went home.
anigiggalittuk He/she is going home now.
itijut They are coming/went in.
itilittut They are coming in right now.


The negative affix –ngit– can be inserted after any of theses affixes to create a negative sentence:

Kauppat Kailâttuk He/she is going to come tomrrrow.
Kauppat Kailângituk He/she is not going to come tomorrow.
Kitigaligeppat suliaKaniakKunga.     I’ll be working this afternoon.
Kitigaligeppat suliaKaniangilanga. I’ll not be working this afternoon.
nigikKauvunga ullumigiak. I ate earlier.
nigikKaungilanga ullumigiak. I did not eat earlier